During the process of investigating the properties of crystals that have a piezoelectric effect there are many new insights into applications.
My organization is developing a self-replicating 3D printer and it has been a long search for the right combination of materials and properties that would allow a device to be scalable, use naturally occurring materials, good precision, collect power and flexibility to manipulate all other matter. This is similar to a teleport in some fashion. The ability to identify a gene sequence and insert it into a cell at some point remotely by manufacturing the sequence would result in that organism existing somewhere at the end of a communication channel. It has the property that the original is still viable so it is less a teleport as a remote duplicator. It has long been my opinion that space and harsh environment should be explored in this manner as it is cost effective.
All the research is done and there are techniques that can be combined to produce the circuitry, the actuators and motors, and structure that is precise to a ten thousandth of an inch. The technology to do so is being demonstrated on the web site. As a person who ( worked in (1) the design and operation of semiconductor wafer equipment (2) the fabrication of ICs (3) the software for the systems (4) the design of complete PC systems (5) process control for major manufacturers , and (6) designed CPUs from individual gates. ) it certainly is a complicated science.
I have developed several devices that serve as control systems. One uses a type of FET and another is a liquid semi-conductor. The device that produces integrated circuits can be operated at home by an individual. It would initially be a little pricy and would compare with high end 3D printers. The concept of personally produced ICs is not something that would be the research goal of a "for profit" enterprise and the concept of a self-replicating 3D printer has no profit incentive. The experiments and results as well as the techniques will be up on the web site as soon as time permits in the research. I have access to atomic and electron microscopes , high vacuum and other equipment so this research isn't done with a compass and straight edge, but the final product system is well with in the realm of the individual.
My primary interest in 3D extends to the application and I have constructed numerous associated technologies that allow the integration of 3D-SR into a real world interface called
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This is an interface to 3D printers that allows the construction of new 3D printers as well as anything that can be produced by the printers in a consolidated remote-multi-user environment. It would be the equivalent of a real world MMORPG. The design is flexible enough to be run as a system for an asteroid, harsh environment space or planets.
It is raw material limited as well as limited by the ability to collect usable energy to drive the operations.
The topic of the post is something that I have been researching for some time and that is piezoelectric crystals. They have been employed and known since the dawn of man and are the subject of some fringe science and that isn't my interest as an experimentalist.
The experiments with cavitation are very interesting and I would suggest that others try it. My current experiment involves using a balanced piezoelectric crystal system that can create a higher level of cavitation to see what temperature limits are possible at the point of collapse. The technique is similar to a pumped laser. I use a piezo crystal in a mechanical framework ( struck by a hammer ) like a stacked piezo element in an igniter to drive the matched voltage with a high rise time and limited current to another element which cavitates fluids and then I measure the point temperature of collapse.
The modulus force of materials can produce astounding effects. Anyone can see its effect in "ice jacking" everywhere. A metal rod with a 100 mm diameter can produce 350 tons of force. The most interesting thing about piezo is the fact that it deforms with great force in response to voltage as well as allows static deformation with voltage to a nanometer scale. It is equivalent to leverage and though the force is great, the energy is small. If it is a calorie per gram degree c, that is 4 joules and though the force is great, there is very little energy involved and (out energy) is < ( in energy ), of course. It is the leverage that makes it useful.